"Rampage Killer" is a term referring to either a Spree Killer or a Mass Murderer.
A Spree Killer is a person who kills at least two victims in at least two different locations with a very brief or non-existent "cooling-off period". That means, even if there's a time break between the murders, it is not related to the seven-phase gap (Aura phase, Trolling phase...) which is typical of a serial killer. Spree killers differ from other multiple murderers: while serial killers would typically do anything to avoid getting caught, and most mass murderers would know they're gonna die at the end of their rampage, spree killers are usually more unpredictable, often not knowing how their own rampage would eventually end up.
- Mass Murderer-type - They are very similar to mass murderers, and fit at least one of their typologies (see below). Sometimes they are mass murderers too.
- Devolving - They are usually serial offenders (e.g. serial killers, serial rapists...) who begin killing with brief or non-existent "cooling-off periods" because of stress caused by certain situations (e.g. being the subjects of a manhunt). It is also common for mentally ill serial killers to devolve to spree or mass murderers.
A Mass Murderer is a person who kills at least three/four (opinions differ) victims in the same location with a non-existent "cooling-off period".
- Classic - They are individuals (mostly asocial loners) affected by either psychotic disorders (e.g. paranoid schizophrenia) or personality disorders (e.g. paranoid personality disorder). They are personal-cause, statement-oriented offenders who feel hatred and resentment towards an either existent, symbolic or perceived collective, community or authority (sometimes even society itself). Some of them are not psychotics but, for example, "functional paranoiacs" with assassin personalities: instead of addressing their wrath to a single person (such as a president or celebrity), they kill a significant amount of people in a specific place (which is often meaningful or connected to the offender), in order to go out "in a blaze of glory". They almost always employ firearms in their crimes (which they are often fixated with), and tend to commit suicide/suicide by cop after the massacre, but there are also exceptions. (this category includes workplace shooters and school shooters).
- Family annihilators
- Depressed - They are dealing with harsh situations (e.g. financial difficulties, illnesses) and come to see murder as the only way to save their families from "the vale of tears" their lives have turned into.
- Pathological Liar - They kill their relatives in order to hide their lies and to "protect" them from the suffering caused by the latters.
- Psychotic - They kill their relatives because of psychotic disorders.
- Libertarian - They kill their relatives in order to get rid of their "oppression".
- Drug Addict - They kill their relatives, usually while going through withdrawal, if they're denied the money required for their fix.
- Heir - They kill their relatives for their inheritance.
- Jealous - They consider their families as their properties, and kill them for jealousy related to an either real or perceived fact.
- Vengeful/Stalker - They do not accept the end of a relationship, are sensitive to rejection, and can get to the point of committing a familicide.
- Litigious - They commit familicide during the course of a domestic dispute.
- Alternative family annihilators' typology:
- Self-Righteous - They hold their wives responsible for the breakdown of the family unit, and are often overly dramatic, choosing to carry out their murders on dates that are important to their families. Unsure in their roles as providers, they are threatened by their wives' careers or financial windfalls.
- Disappointed - They believe they have done right by their families, but the family has not done right by them, for example, by opposing to their religious beliefs.
- Anomic - They see their families as an extension of their own success, so if success eludes the family (e.g. in the form of bankruptcy or a public scandal) they are no longer serving their function.
- Paranoid - They perceive a threat to their families (e.g. children will be removed by the legal system, and they will not have access to them anymore), whom they kill as a means of "protecting" them.
- Mission-oriented - They are either terrorists or members of a cult who kill a significant amount of people to bring to the fore their arguments. They are often affected by the same types of pathologies of Classic mass murderers, but they come up with a religious, racial, political... cause as an excuse.
- Indiscriminate/Situational - They commit mass murders in conjunction with other offenses (e.g. a robbery or home invasion). Sometimes the murders are planned along with the offense, sometimes they are the result of a degenerating situation which prompts the offender to kill.
- Devolving - They are mentally ill serial/spree killers who devolve to mass murder.
- Criminal Enterprise - They commit mass murders for monetary purposes (this category includes mass murders linked to organized crime).
- Atypical - They defy classification, often being a mixture of these typologies.
Real-Life Spree Killers
- Andrew Cunanan (Mass Murderer-type; Atypical)
- Billy Cook (Mass Murderer-type)
- Christopher Dorner (Mass Murderer-type)
- Christopher Wilder (Devolving)
- Elliot Rodger (Mass Murderer-type)
- Frazier Glenn Miller, Jr. (Mass Murderer-type)
- Gary Gilmore (Mass Murderer-type)
- Howard Unruh (Mass Murderer-type)
- John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo (Mass Murderer-type)
- Joseph Christopher (Mass Murderer-type)
- Raymond Lee Stewart (Mass Murderer-type)
- Robert Garrow (Devolving)
Real-Life Mass Murderers
- Adam Lanza (Classic)
- Anders Behring Breivik (Mission-oriented)
- Byran Uyesugi (Classic)
- Bradford Bishop (Family Annihilator)
- Dick Hickock and Perry Smith (Indiscriminate/Situational)
- Donald Nash (Indiscriminate/Situational)
- Edward Allaway (Classic)
- Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold (Classic)
- George Geschwendt (Classic)
- George Hennard (Classic)
- Gian Luigi Ferri (Classic)
- Jack Gilbert Graham (Criminal Enterprise)
- James and John McNamara (Mission-oriented)
- James Holmes (Classic)
- James Huberty (Classic)
- Jared Lee Loughner (Classic)
- Jeff Weise (Classic)
- John List (Family annihilator; Depressed; Anomic)
- John Taylor and Craig Godineaux (Indiscriminate/Situational)
- Julio González (Classic)
- Marc Lépine (Classic)
- Micah Xavier Johnson (Classic)
- Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel (Mission-oriented)
- Nidal Malik Hasan (Classic)
- Omar Mateen (Classic)
- Richard Farley (Classic)
- Richard Speck (Indiscriminate/Situational)
- Ronald DeFeo, Jr. (Family annihilator; Libertarian)
- Seung-Hui Cho (Classic)
- Stephen Paddock (Classic)
- The Tylenol Killer (Classic)
- Thomas Hamilton (Classic)
- Timothy McVeigh (Mission-oriented)
Real-Life Spree Killers/Mass Murderers
- Andrew Kehoe (Classic; Mass Murderer-type)
- Charles Starkweather and Caril Ann Fugate (Family annihilator (Libertarian); Mass Murderer-type)
- Charles Whitman (Classic; Mass Murderer-type)
- Herbert Mullin (Devolving; Devolving)
- Jean-Claude Romand (Family annihilator (Pathological Liar); Mass Murderer-type)
- Mark Barton (Family annihilator (Depressed); Classic; Mass Murderer-type)
- Martin Bryant (Classic; Mass Murderer-type)
- Milton Johnson (Devolving; Atypical; Mass Murderer-type; Atypical)
- Reginald and Jonathan Carr (Mass Murderer-type; Indiscriminate/Situational)
- Richard Chase (Devolving; Devolving)
On Criminal Minds
- Season One:
- Season Two:
- Season Three:
- Season Four:
- Season Five:
- Season Six:
- James Thomas ("Compromising Positions") - Mass murderer
- Jeremy Sayer ("Safe Heaven") - Spree killer (also family annihilator)
- Raymond Donovan and Sydney Manning ("The Thirteenth Step") - Spree killers
- Ben Foster ("With Friends Like These...") - Spree Killer
- Shelley Chamberlain ("Hanley Waters") - Spree killer and mass murderer
- Season Seven:
- Chloe Donaghy ("It Takes a Village") - Spree killer
- Luke Dolan ("Dorado Falls") - Spree killer and mass murderer
- Randy Slade ("Painless") - Mass murderer
- Jimmy Hall ("The Bittersweet Science") - Spree killer
- Curtis Banks ("Snake Eyes") - Spree killer
- Margaret Hallman ("I Love You, Tommy Brown") - Spree killer
- Izzy Rogers ("Hit" and "Run") - Mass murderer
- Matthew Downs ("Hit" and "Run") - Spree Killer and Mass Murderer
- Season Eight:
- Season Nine:
- Season Ten:
- Season Eleven:
- Mitchell Crossford ("The Witness") - Mass murderer
- Benjamin Wade and William Duke Mason ("Outlaw") - Mass murderer
- Lester Turner ("Outlaw") - Spree killer
- Sharon Mayford ("Entropy") - Mass Murderer (also serial killer)
- Andrew Meeks ("A Badge and a Gun") - Spree Killer
- Chazz Montolo ("A Beautiful Disaster") - Mass Murderer (also serial killer)
- Season Twelve:
- Season Thirteen:
- Season Fourteen:
Female Rampage Killers
Female rampage killers are extremely rare. In "Public Enemy", however, Morgan incorrectly states that rampage killers, unless they are school shooters, are always middle-aged males. Documented examples include:
- Sylvia Seegrist: Opened fire at a Springfield, Pennsylvania, shopping mall on October 30, 1985, killing three people and wounding seven others before being disarmed by a shopper John Laufer (who mistakenly assumed Sylvia shooting to be a prank, as it was close to Halloween). The individuals killed included two men, Ernest Trout, and Augustus Ferrara, and a two-year-old, Recife Cosmen. She was 25 years old and had been diagnosed as suffering from paranoid schizophrenia ten years earlier.
- Brenda Spencer: Used a .22 rifle and fired at the staff and students of an elementary school across the street on which she lived, killing two and wounding nine, on January 29, 1979, while she was still 16. She is currently serving time in a San Diego prison and has been denied parole four times. When asked why she did it, she simply said that she doesn't like Mondays and that killing "livens up the day".
- Amy Bishop: Shot six colleagues, three of whom died, with a 9mm handgun February 13, 2010, shortly after learning that she had been denied tenure. She was arrested and indicted for the shooting and is currently in custody. The authorities also reopened the case of her fatally shooting her brother years earlier, an incident which previously was believed to have been an accident. In June 2010, she was charged with first-degree murder of her brother, nearly 24 years after the shooting occurred. In 1993, Bishop and her husband were also suspects in a case in which a pair of pipe bombs were sent to a Harvard Medical School professor.
- Jennifer San Marco: Killed a neighbor, then went to a mail processing plant, where she killed an additional six before shooting herself in the head on January 30, 2006. She was apparently motivated by severe paranoia and bigotry (San Marco was a known racist, and with the exception of neighbor Beverly Graham, all her victims were minorities).
- Laurie Dann: Opened fire in an elementary school on May 20, 1988, after several failed poisoning and arson attempts at numerous locations, killing eight-year-old Nicholas Corwin and injuring five other schoolchildren. Dann then broke into a random home, taking the occupants hostage and seriously wounding one of them. After a standoff with police, she committed suicide by shooting herself in the mouth. It is believed that had her poisoning and arson attempts succeeded, she would have become the most prolific female rampage killer in modern history, and possibly also one of the deadliest rampage killers.
- Sherie Lash: A former Native American tribal leader in northern California who shot five people during a tribal meeting on February 21, 2014, killing four of them, including the current tribal leader. She then grabbed a kitchen knife and stabbed a sixth person who survived. She was subdued and arrested by responding police officers.
- The most prolific spree killer in modern history was Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, a Tunisian-born Frenchman who deliberately drove a large cargo truck and fired a gun simultaneously into a crowd celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, on July 14, 2016. 86 people, including several foreigners, were killed and 434 others were injured, 52 critically. The rampage covered a distance of 1.2 miles before ending at a hotel beside the walkway. There, responding police officers cornered Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's truck and opened fire on it, shooting and killing him. Unconfirmed reports claimed that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel shouted "Allahu Akbar!" (a phrase popularly used by Islamic terrorists) during the rampage. Despite being described as not being particularly religious, an eyewitness placed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, a newly-hired truck driver and Muslim who had a small criminal record, as a frequent attendant of a mosque in recent months. An investigation of Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's phone records found that he was in contact with known Islamic extremists. On July 21, the French prosecutor confirmed that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel planned the attack for months with nine accomplices, who have all been arrested and charged.
- The rampage killer criteria described a somewhat uninterrupted rampage and the end of said killing spree through arrest or death, either by police officers or suicide. However, there has been only one exception to this fact: William Unek, an African police constable who murdered a total of 21 people with an ax near Mahagi, Belgian Congo, on New Years Day in 1954. He then avoided capture for three years, eventually hiding in Tanganyika. Unek was then captured after he perpetrated a second deadlier killing rampage in the town of Malampaka after a work dispute, in which he brutally killed 36 additional people by either shooting, stabbing, burning, or strangulation. He was able to avoid capture again for nine days, to then he was tracked down by police and mortally wounded by a fire that engulfed the house he was hiding in. Unek later died of his injuries. With a total of 57 people killed and at least an additional 30 injured, he would be considered the third-deadliest spree killer in modern history, only below Anders Behring Breivik and Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel as described above, but as his killings occurred in two separate events that were three years apart, this position is officially held by Woo Bum-kon, a South Korean spree killer who murdered 56 people and injured an additional 35 before committing a suicide bombing.
- The Serial Killer Files by Harold Schecter. Random House [] (0-345-46566-0)