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You know I've been to prison, and I don't masturbate anymore.
Phillip Garrido

Phillip Craig Garrido and Nancy Garrido (née Bocanegra) were a married duo of abductors who are the perpetrators behind the 18-year kidnapping of 11-year-old Jaycee Lee Dugard.

Background[]

The primary arrestee in the case, Phillip Greg Garrido, was born in Pittsburg, California, on April 5, 1951. He grew up in Brentwood, where he graduated from Liberty High School in 1969. In 2009, after Garrido's final arrest, his father, Manuel Garrido, who resided in Brentwood, said his son was a "good boy" as a child but changed radically after a serious motorcycle accident as a teenager. Garrido later turned to drug use – primarily crystal meth and LSD. Manuel died in Brentwood in 2011 at the age of 90. Garrido's brother Ron (born 1944) who lives in Brentwood said Garrido became a "fruitcake" after getting hooked on hallucinogenic and stimulant street drugs.

In 1972, Garrido was arrested and charged with sexually assaulting a 14-year-old girl, but the case did not go to trial after the girl declined to testify. In 1973, Garrido married high school classmate Christine Murphy, who said he was abusive. Murphy alleged that Garrido kidnapped her when she tried to leave him. In 1976, Garrido kidnapped 25-year-old Katherine Callaway in South Lake Tahoe, California. He took her to a Reno, Nevada warehouse, where he raped her for five and a half hours. When a police officer noticed a car parked outside the unit and then the broken lock on the warehouse door, he knocked on the door and was greeted by Garrido. Callaway then emerged and asked for help. Garrido was promptly arrested. He was charged and convicted of crimes in both federal and state courts.

In a 1976 court-ordered psychiatric evaluation, Garrido was diagnosed as a "sexual deviant and chronic drug abuser. The psychiatrist recommended that a neurological examination be conducted because Garrido's chronic drug use could be "responsible in part" for his "mixed" or "multiple" sexual deviation. He was then evaluated by a neurologist. The diagnostic impression was: "normal neurological examination." In court, Garrido testified that he masturbated in his car by the side of elementary and high schools while watching girls. He was convicted on March 9, 1977 and began serving a 50-year federal sentence on June 30, 1977, at Leavenworth Penitentiary in Kansas

At Leavenworth, Garrido met Nancy Bocanegra – the secondary arrestee in Dugard's kidnapping –  who was visiting another prisoner, her uncle. On October 5, 1981, he and Bocanegra were married at Leavenworth. On January 22, 1988, Garrido was released from Leavenworth to Nevada State Prison, where he served seven months of a five-years-to-life Nevada sentence. He was transferred to federal parole authorities in Contra Costa on August 26, 1988. In Antioch, the Garridos lived in the home of his elderly mother, who suffered from dementia. As a parolee, he was monitored, later wore a GPS-enabled ankle bracelet, and was visited many times by parole officers, local sheriff's deputies, and federal agents

The Kidnapping of Jaycee Lee Dugard[]

In September 1990, Dugard and her family moved from the Los Angeles County city of Arcadia, to Meyers, a rural town south of South Lake Tahoe, California, because they thought it was a safer community. At the time of the abduction, Dugard was in the fifth grade and, because of her shyness, was worrying about an upcoming field trip. She was close to her mother, Terry Probyn, and her infant half sister Shayna who was born in 1990. Her biological father, Ken Slayton, did not know he had fathered a child. Although her mother married a man named Carl Probyn, Dugard was never close to her stepfather. On June 10, 1991, Dugard's mother, who worked as a typesetter at a print house, left for work early in the day. Eleven-year-old Dugard, wearing her favorite all-pink outfit, walked up the hill from her house, against traffic, to catch the school bus. When she was halfway up the hill, a car approached her. She thought that the man in the car would ask for directions. When he rolled down the window, he shocked her unconscious with a stun gun and abducted her. The man was Phillip Greg Garrido. Nancy, who the District Attorney in the Dugard case believes scouted Dugard as a prize for Garrido, held Dugard down in the car as she drifted in and out of consciousness during the three hour drive from her home to the Garrido home in Antioch. The only time Dugard spoke was when she pleaded that her parents could not afford a ransom.

Carl Probyn witnessed the abduction of his stepdaughter from within sight of their home. He saw two people in a mid-sized gray car – possibly a Mercury Monarch – make a U-turn at the school bus stop where Dugard was waiting, and a woman forcing Dugard into the car. Probyn gave chase on a bicycle, but was unable to overtake the vehicle. Some of Dugard's classmates were also witnesses to the abduction. Initial suspects included Probyn and Slayton, though they did not know each other and Slayton had only had a brief relationship with Terry in 1979, not knowing he had a child. When Dugard was rescued, Slayton expressed an interest in meeting his daughter and taking a paternity test. Dugard expressed no interest at the time in having a relationship with Slayton. Probyn took and passed several polygraph tests, and Slayton was also quickly cleared of suspicion.

By the time the Garridos arrived at their home in an unincorporated area in Contra Costa County, they had removed Dugard's clothing, leaving only a butterfly-shaped ring that she hid from them for the next 18 years. Taking her from their car onto their property, Garrido placed a blanket over Dugard's head and ushered her into an area of his backyard where sheds and storage units stood, placing her inside a tiny one that was soundproofed. After he finished raping her for the first time he left her naked in the structure, which he bolted shut, warning her that Doberman Pinschers were outside and trained to attack her if she tried to escape. Garrido would visit her in the structure, bringing her food and milkshakes, and talking to her.

Immediately after he kidnapped her, Garrido forced Dugard into a shower with him. The first time he raped her, she was still in handcuffs, which she wore during her first week in captivity. During that period, Dugard's only human contact was Garrido, who sometimes brought her fast food and told her amusing stories. He provided a bucket for her to use to relieve herself. At one point, he provided her with a television, but she could not watch the news and was unaware of the publicized search for her. Almost a month and a half after her kidnapping, by Dugard's recollection, Garrido moved her to a larger room next door, where she was handcuffed to a bed. He explained that the "demon angels" let him take her and that she would help him with his sexual problems because society had ignored him. He went on methamphetamine binges he called "runs", during which he would dress Dugard up and spend time with her while cutting out figures from pornographic magazines. He made her listen for the voices he said he could hear from the walls. Garrido also often professed the belief that he was a chosen servant of God. These binges would end with him sobbing and apologizing to Dugard alternating with threats to sell her to people who would put her in a cage

Seven months into her captivity, Garrido introduced Dugard to his wife, Nancy, who brought the child a stuffed animal and chocolate milk, and engaged in the same tearful apologies to her. Though Dugard craved the woman's approval at the time, in retrospect she has stated that she was manipulated by Nancy, who alternated between motherly concern and coldness and cruelty, expressing her jealousy of Dugard, whom she regarded as the one to blame for her predicament. Dugard characterized Nancy, who worked as a nursing home aide, as "evil" and "twisted." When Garrido was returned to prison for failing a drug test, Nancy replaced her husband as Dugard's jailer. The Garridos manipulated Dugard further by presenting her, on two occasions, with kittens that would later "mysteriously vanish." When they discovered that she was signing her real name in a journal that she kept on the kittens, she was forced to tear out the page with her name on it, the last time she would be permitted to say or write her name until years later. She was never allowed to see a doctor or dentist.

Thirty-four months into her captivity, the Garridos began to allow Dugard freedom from her handcuffs for periods of time, though they kept her locked in the bolted room. On April 3, 1994, Easter Sunday, they gave her cooked food for the first time. They informed her that they believed that she was pregnant. Age 13 and four-and-a-half months pregnant, Dugard had learned of the link between sex and pregnancy from television. At this time, while Dugard was raising her baby, Angel, Terry Probyn was holding rummage sales to pay for private investigators and distributing a million flyers across the United States featuring a sketch artist's image of a teenage Dugard. Dugard watched programs on childbirth, in preparation for the birth of her first daughter, which occurred on August 18, 1994. Her second daughter was born on November 13, 1997. Dugard took care of her daughters using information learned from television, working to protect them from Garrido, who continued his enraged rants and lectures

On August 24, 2009, Garrido visited the San Francisco office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and left a four-page essay containing his ideas about religion and sexuality, suggesting that he had discovered a solution to problem behaviors like his past crimes. The essay described how he had cured his criminal sexual behaviors and how that information could be used to assist in curing other sexual predators by: "controlling human impulses that drive humans to commit dysfunctional acts."On the same day, he went to a University of California, Berkeley police office with Dugard's two daughters, seeking permission to hold a special event on campus as a part of his "God's Desire" program. He spoke with U.C. Berkeley special events manager Lisa Campbell. She perceived his behavior as "erratic" and that the girls were "sullen and submissive." She asked him to make an appointment for the next day, which he did, leaving his name in the process. Officer Ally Jacobs discovered, through a background check, that Garrido was a registered sex offender on federal parole for kidnapping and rape. When he and the girls returned for their appointment at 2:00 p.m. the following day, August 25, Jacobs made a point of sitting in during the meeting. The girls appeared to Jacobs to be pale, as if having not been exposed to sunlight, and their behavior unusual. Since Garrido's several parole violations were a basis for an arrest, Jacobs phoned the parole office to relay her concerns, leaving a report of the meeting on voicemail.

After hearing Jacobs' recorded message, two parole agents drove to the Garridos' house later that day. Upon arrival, they handcuffed him and searched the house, finding only his wife Nancy and his elderly mother at home. Then the parole agents drove him back to the parole office. En route, he said that the girls who had accompanied him to UC Berkeley "were the daughters of a relative, and he had permission from their parents to take them to the university." Although a month before the parole office had barred Garrido from being around minors, and although Berkeley was 40 miles (64 kilometres) from the Garridos' Contra Costa residence, 15 miles (24 km) in excess of the 25 miles (40 km) limit he was allowed to travel from his home without permission from his parole agent, the agents overlooked this violation. After reviewing his file with a supervisor, they drove him home and ordered him to report to the office again the next day to discuss further his visit to UC Berkeley, and to follow up on their concerns about the two girls.

Garrido arrived at the parole office in Concord, California on August 26 with his wife Nancy, the two girls, and Dugard, who was introduced as "Allissa". The parole officer decided to separate Garrido from the women and girls to obtain their identification.

Maintaining her false identity as "Allissa", Dugard told investigators that the girls were her daughters. Although she indicated that she was aware that Garrido was a convicted sex offender, she stated that he was a "changed man", a "great person" and was "good with her kids", comments that were echoed by the two girls. When pressed for details that would confirm her identity, Dugard became "extremely defensive" and "agitated", demanding to know why she was being "interrogated", and subsequently stated that she was a battered wife from Minnesota in hiding from her abusive husband. The parole officer eventually called the Concord police. Upon the arrival of a police sergeant, Garrido admitted he had kidnapped and raped her. Only after this did Dugard identify herself as Jaycee Dugard.

Phillip was ultimately sentenced to 431 years in prison and Nancy received 36-to-life, both of which they are currently serving in different prisons.

Aftermath[]

Dugard was reunited with her family, who noted she and her daughters appeared to be in good health. She would later sure the state of California in 1999 due to Phillip Garrido having been paroled for kidnapping in 1976 when he abducted her. The state settled for a sum of $20,000,000 as compensation to her for the trauma she endured. The bill was approved by Arnold Schwarzenegger. She would later file a lawsuit in 2011 against the N.D. Cal. for its failure to monitor Phillip Garrido while he was paroled and that he should have been sent reincarcerated due to violating it even before he abducted her. It was dismissed in 2016. Dugard has since written two books about her experience and even received a Lifetime Leadership honor at the third annual DVF Awards. Regarding assertions Dugard suffered from Stockholm Syndrome, she herself has rejected the notion, considering her experiences as never caring or sympathizing for the two captors and instead overcoming the situation with immense survival and adaptation.

Modus Operandi[]

Phillip and Nancy Garrido approached Dugard in their car while she was walking to catch the school bus. Phillip incapacitated her with a stun gun and the two abducted her into the car and stripped her naked and covered her with a blanket before taking her back to their residence. There, she was handcuffed and locked in a small soundproof shed after a naked shower with Phillip; the shed was allegedly guarded by trained Doberman pinchers. Phillip would talk to her regularly, bring her fast food, and gave her a buck to relieve herself. Overtime, he began to allow her to watch TV (with the exception of the news, which she wasn't allowed to watch) and would rape her repeatedly. He eventually moved her to a larger room, where she would be cuffed to a bed and have her engage in various activities with him (including sexual favors) while he did drugs (which he took frequently while she was a captive). Nancy would also bring Dugard things and later would replace Phillip as her primary captor (she was described as alternating between being motherly and cruel to Dugard). After Dugard became pregnant, they allowed her time out of cuffs and gave her cooked food. Dugard was allowed to raise her and Phillip's daughters and worked to protect them from him. Phillip would also instruct Dugard to have her daughters address Nancy as their mother while she was their sister.

Known Victims[]

  • Unspecified date in 1972: Unnamed 14-year-old girl (abducted, raped and drugged by Phillip)
  • Unspecified date in 1973: Christine Murphy (abducted by Phillip, when she tried to leave him)
  • November 22, 1976: Kathrine Callaway, 25 (abducted and raped repeatedly by Phillip)
  • June 1991: Jaycee Lee Dugard (abducted, raped repeatedly, impregnated and gave her a false identity; was rescued on August 2009)

On Criminal Minds[]

  • Season Five
    • "Cradle to Grave" - While not directly mentioned or referenced in thus episode, the Garridos appear to be an inspiration for the episode's main unsubs, The Reimanns - Both were couples of abductors with the husband being a serial rapist and domestic abuser, the husbands violently abused at least one of their respective wives, both couples kidnapped young Caucasian women and girls, the husbands repeatedly raped the victims for as long as years in captivity, impregnated the victims, forced the victims' childbirth to be in captivity, gave their children of one gender away for adoption and held their children of the other gender captive while raising them as their own (the Reimanns kept the sons and gave away the daughters, the Garridos kept the daughters and gave away the sons), and their victims were rescued along with their children.
    • "...A Thousand Words" - While not directly mentioned or referenced in this episode, the Garridos appear to be an inspiration for the episode's unsubs, Robert Matthew Burke and Juliet Monroe - Both were abductor couples consisting of a dominant male and submissive female, the males had previous records of serial rape, weren't convicted on their first set of charges but incarcerated on their second set of charges, both couples met while the male was incarcerated and the female was visiting a relative in prison, abducted young, Caucasian female victims, held them captive in their homes, and the males repeatedly raped the victims.
  • Season Six
  • Season Eleven
    • "Hostage" - While not directly mentioned or referenced in this episode, Phillip Garrido in particular seems to have been an inspiration for the episode's unsub, Michael Clark Thompson - Both abducted a girl, physically and sexually abused her, and held her captive for over a decade. Both also fathered two daughters with their victims, taught said victims to address their daughters as their sisters (and vice-versa), and gradually allowed their victims to leave their residences intermittently.

References[]

Wikipedia article on the kidnapping of Jaycee Dugard

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